Friday, May 30, 2014

Certified Science May 2014


A Periodic ESA E-mail Service to ACEs and Urban-Industrial BCEs

The Entomological Society of America is the #1 source of scientific information for the entomologically-focused urban professional. This email is a service of the ESA for all ACEs and any BCEs who hold a specialty in urban and industrial entomology.

Here is a summary of some recent articles in the ESA journals that relate to structural pest management and urban arthropod pests. The abstracts are freely available online for all articles, though access to the full text will generally require membership in the ESA, in addition to your certification.

Tunneling and Food Transportation Activity of Four Subterranean Termite Species (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) at Various Temperatures
Authors: Cao, Runxin; Su, Nan-Yao
Source: Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 107, Number 3, May 2014, pp. 696-701(6)
Abstract:  The effect of temperature on tunneling and food transportation activity of four subterranean termite species, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), was examined. The experiment was conducted at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C and ? 99% relative humidity (RH) using 10- by 10-cm planar arenas. Tunneling areas excavated by termites at 12 and 48 h were analyzed using ... ( Click here for full abstract)

Within-Field Spatial Distribution of Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)-Induced Boll Injury in Commercial Cotton Fields of the Southeastern United States
Authors: Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Reisig, Dominic D.; Greene, Jeremy K.; Reay-Jones, Francis P. F.; Toews, Michael D.
Source: Environmental Entomology, Volume 43, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 744-752(9)
Abstract:  Spatial distribution of boll injury caused by stink bugs to developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) bolls was studied in five commercial fields (?22 ha each) in 2011 and 2012 to understand variability in boll injury dynamics within fields. Cotton bolls and stink bugs were sampled weekly from a georeferenced grid of sampling points (one sample per 0.40 ha) in each field, but no samples were taken within 30 m of field edges. The inverse distance weighted interpolation, variogram analysis, and ... ( Click here for full abstract)

Bioactivity of Cedarwood Oil and Cedrol Against Arthropod Pests
Authors: Eller, F. J.; Vander Meer, R. K.; Behle, R. W.; Flor-Weiler, L. B.; Palmquist, Debra E.
Source: Environmental Entomology, Volume 43, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 762-766(5)
Abstract:  Heartwood samples from Juniperus virginiana L. were extracted with liquid carbon dioxide, and the bioactivity of carbon dioxide-derived cedarwood oil (CWO) toward several species of ants and cedrol toward ticks was determined. Repellency was tested for ants, and toxicity was tested for ticks. Ants in an outdoor bioassay were significantly repelled by the presence of CWO on a pole leading to a sugar-water solution. Similarly, CWO was a significant repellent barrier to red imported fire ants and prevented them from finding a typical food source. ( Click here for full abstract)

Durability of a Novel Durable Bait for Control of Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): Results of Five-Year Field Aging Studies
Authors: Eger, J. E.; Hamm, R. L.; Demark, J. J.; Chin-Heady, E.; Tolley, M. P.; Benson, E. P.; Zungoli, P. A.; Smith, M. S.; Spomer, N. A.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1201-1205(5)
Abstract:  A durable termite bait containing 0.5% noviflumuron was evaluated for physical durability, retention of active ingredient, consumption by termites, and toxicity to termites over 5 yr in field studies at locations in Indiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Plots in Indiana and Mississippi included both natural rainfall and irrigated plots, while plots in South Carolina received only natural rainfall. Samples collected every 3 mo for the first 4 yr were evaluated for consumption with ... ( Click here for full abstract)

Effect of Feeding Status on Mortality Response of Adult Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to Some Insecticide Products
Authors: Choe, Dong-Hwan; Campbell, Kathleen
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1206-1215(10)
Abstract:  Fresh and aged residual deposits of several insecticide products were tested against bed bug adults to determine if a recent bloodmeal affected their mortality response to the residues. The bed bugs with a recent bloodmeal survived significantly longer compared with the unfed ones on their exposure to fresh or aged residual deposits of chlorfenapyr and aged residual deposits of deltamethrin on a wooden substrate. Even though the survival time of fed bed bugs was significantly longer ... ( Click here for full abstract)

Influences of Pyriproxyfen on Fecundity and Reproduction of the Pharaoh Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Authors: Tay, Jia-Wei; Lee, Chow-Yang
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1216-1223(8)
Abstract:  The effects of the juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen (at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1%) on egg production, number of ovarioles, and length of oocytes were examined in queens of the Pharaoh ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.). Pyriproxyfen significantly reduced egg production in queens from week 3 onwards. Queens that were exposed to 1% pyriproxyfen stopped producing eggs at week 8. After 8 wk, ovaries were dissected from all queens, and the number of ovarioles and the length of the largest oocytes ... ( Click here for full abstract)

Trehalase Activity in Fungus-Growing Termite, Odontotermes feae (Isoptera: Termitideae) and Inhibitory Effect of Validamycin
Authors: Tatun, Nujira; Wangsantitham, Orathai; Tungjitwitayakul, Jatuporn; Sakurai, Sho
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1224-1232(9)
Abstract:  Trehalase is the hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzed the hydrolysis of trehalose to glucose. In this study, trehalase activity in the fungus-growing termite, Odontotermes feae Wasmann had been examined. Trehalase activity in digestive tract and carcass of O. feae was higher than that in wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann. The intestinal tract of worker caste of O. feae was the main source of trehalase compared with that in salivary, fat body, and carcass. In particular, the highest activity was found in ... ( Click here for full abstract)

Efficacy of Aerosol Applications of Methoprene and Synergized Pyrethrin Against Tribolium castaneum Adults and Eggs
Authors: Tucker, Angela M.; Campbell, James F.; Arthur, Frank H.; Zhu, Kun Yan
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1284-1291(8)
Abstract:  Experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of a single aerosol application of the insecticides methoprene and piperonyl butoxide-synergized pyrethrin, alone or in combination, and the insecticide carrier, Isopar M, against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. The initial test exposed adults to insecticide treatments and placed male/female pairs in flour. All adults exposed to synergized pyrethrin were knocked down for at least 24 h after exposure but they recovered. ( Click here for full abstract)

Going the Distance: How Does Market Access Affect Demand for IPM Packages?
Authors: Buckmaster, Amy; Alwang, Jeffrey; Peterson, Everett; Rivera, Mauricio
Source: Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Volume 5, Number 1, 2014, pp. B1-B7(7)
Abstract:  A challenge facing integrated pest management (IPM) technology transfer programs is to identify where to conduct outreach. As IPM is a knowledge-intensive management process, effective training usually requires sustained interactions between extension professionals and target farmers. Efforts to disseminate IPM are constrained by limited extension budgets and therefore should focus on areas with the greatest promise for ... ( Click here for full abstract)

Susceptibility of Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to Fipronil and Imidacloprid Using Adult and Larval Bioassays
Authors: Rust, M. K.; Vetter, R.; Denholm, I.; Blagburn, B.; Williamson, M. S.; Kopp, S.; Coleman, G.; Hostetler, J.; Davis, W.; Mencke, N.; Rees, R.; Foit, S.; Tetzner, K.
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 51, Number 3, May 2014, pp. 638-643(6)
Abstract:  The monitoring of the susceptibility of fleas to insecticides has typically been conducted by exposing adults on treated surfaces. Other methods such as topical applications of insecticides to adults and larval bioassays on treated rearing media have been developed. Unfortunately, baseline responses of susceptible strains of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouchè), except for imidacloprid, have not been determined for all on-animal therapies and new classes of ... ( Click here for full abstract)

The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)
Authors: Bahrndorff, S.; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.; Skovgård, H.; Hald, B.
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 51, Number 3, May 2014, pp. 670-677(8)
Abstract:  The house fly ( Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure.  ... ( Click here for full abstract

In addition to the scientific research, ESA also hosts the Entomology Today blog. Some recent posts of interest include:

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Certification Board Actions

On May 13, 2014 the ESA Certification Board (CB) held its second quarter meeting via teleconference. In anticipation of launching the ACE-International program later this fall, the CB made several decisions which will also modify the domestic ACE program. The goal is to have the two programs be as similar as possible with as little stratification as required. Two decisions that affect the ACE program -- both of which will take effect on October 1, 2014 -- are:

1) Modify the application requirements to require submission of two letters of professional reference. Currently the program only requires the applicant to list one professional colleague who would be able to vouch for the candidate's professionalism. This new requirement mirrors the BCE requirement for submission of two letters.

2) Modify the application requirements to adjust the years of experience required. Currently the ACE program requires seven years of professional experience in structural pest management -- a number that was derived arbitrarily at the program's inception. Two panels of subject matter experts reviewed the decision and felt that the point at which a professional was able to acquire the minimum amount of experience to competently perform their duties up to the ACE standard would be closer to five years.

This latter decision is in keeping with the rules of certification. According to Jerald Jacobs in the Association Law Handbook, "The best way to maximize validity is to have an open process by which all affected constituencies may participate … a broad base of participation and input will help ensure that the requirements do not unfairly bias or discriminate against any eligible professionals and accurately measure competency… The criteria, standards, or principles should be no more stringent than necessary to ensure the levels of competency or quality that the program aims to measure have been achieved by the candidates."

In other words, the rule for setting the requirement is to find the point at which the minimum is met, not the maximum.

Said another way by Mickie Rops, CAE (who also served as ESA's Certification Consultant during the program review in April 2012), "It is important that eligibility requirements are linked to the actual needs of the role being certified, not randomly chosen; this concept is often called job-relatedness. It is sometimes tempting for a certification committee to drift towards wanting to recognize excellence rather than competence in a role, and for the eligibility requirements to become unnecessarily high. Requirements should be reasonable and reflect the need-to-have, not the nice-to-have."

Both of these rules will be implemented with an effective date of October 1, 2014.

Friday, May 16, 2014

Newly certified - April 2014

Please join ESA and the Certification Board in congratulating these professionals for earning their ACE and BCE credentials recently:

New BCE:
Dr. Daniel C. Peck, BCE, (Grass Systems Entomology), Geneva, NY  USA.  Certified on 5/2/2014.

New ACEs:
Mr. F. Allen Hall, ACE, (Hometeam Pest Defense), Jacksonville, FL  USA.  Certified on 5/8/2014.
Mr. John L. Lightsey, ACE, (EnSec Pest & Lawn), Cantonment, FL  USA.  Certified on 5/8/2014.
Mr. Michael David Duncan, ACE, (Truly Nolen of America, Inc.), Orlando, FL  USA.  Certified on 5/8/2014.
Mr. Kevin Thorn, ACE, (Thorn Pest Solutions), Pleasant Grove, UT  USA.  Certified on 4/14/2014.
Mr. Benjamin Joseph Blahnik, ACE, (Copesan), South Milwaukee, WI  USA.  Certified on 4/11/2014.
Mr. Anthony E. Petersen, ACE, (ConAgra Foods), Omaha, NE  USA.  Certified on 4/9/2014.

Friday, May 9, 2014

ACE fees explained

We've had some questions come in to ESA about how the new fees for ACE work (see Questions #7 and 8 on this post). Here is my attempt to explain the process as succinctly as possible.

The old system (which went away on January 1, 2014) required an application fee and then --upon passing their exam-- most people had to renew their ACE again right away. The new structure flips that on its head and now most people will remain ACE certified and not need to worry about renewing their certification for several years after they pass the exam.  Overall the fees remain about the same for most people, so this change is not a fee increase -- it is a restructuring.

ACE application and renewal date rules:
  1. All applicants must take their exam within 1 year of the application's acceptance
  2. If unsuccessful, the applicant must wait at least 3 months but not more than 1 year from their earlier attempt
  3. All applicants must ultimately pass the ACE exam within 3 years of application acceptance or the application will expire
    1. If the application is accepted in the first half of the year it will expire on December 31st, two years hence
    2. If the application is accepted in the second half of the year it will expire on December 31st, three years hence
  4. Once an applicant passes the exam they are ACE certified until the end of the initial 3-year term.
  5. When it is time to renew the ACE certification, the renewal term is for 3 calendar years.
Everything that ESA does is based on the calendar year, however, which complicates this model a little bit. Applications accepted in Jan-June will be a little less than 3 years and applications accepted July-December will be a little longer than 3-years in terms of their ACE certification when they pass. Here are some examples of how this plays out:

(a) Example #1 - John's application is accepted on 2/1/2014 and he tests and passes his ACE on 9/1/2014. His application lifespan is from 2/1/2014 and he will remain ACE certified until the end of the 3-year term (12/31/2016) which is a few months short of the 3-year period.

(b) Example #2 - Jane's application is accepted on 8/1/2014 and she tests/passes later that month. Her application lifespan is from 8/1/2014 and she will remain ACE certified until 12/31/2017 (since she applied in the second half of the year). Her application lifespan is thus a little longer than 3 years.

Monday, May 5, 2014


Membership associations like ESA are generally run by a professional staff (people like me). Every day we come to the office and perform that tasks that help to keep the association running smoothly. And we could not do our job without the support of volunteers.

There are many, many volunteer positions that support ESA and the ESACC certification programs of BCE and ACE. Last week I sent out an email asking for volunteers to fill a few slots on two judging panels (a judging panel is the body that reviews candidates for an award and ultimately decides who is the winning candidate). We had a handful of open slots on the two panels and I thought it would be difficult to fill those slots. 

Boy, was I wrong.

Within the first few minutes of sending the email my inbox began to flood with qualified ACEs and BCEs who were looking for a way to serve their certification programs. Within the first 24 hours I had over 100 talented professionals who had volunteered to serve on the ACE Professional Award Judging Panel or the BCE Certification Awards Judging Panel. Since that time I've had several dozen more people email me and ask if there were still slots open.

ACE Professional Award Judging Panel (current as of 5/5/2014)
The panels have now been filled and we have a host of people waiting in the wings for the next volunteer slot to open up. To those of you who volunteered (whether you were selected for the panel or not) -- thank you. Everyone is busy these days. Work, family, school, church, community -- very few people have extra hours in the day and most of us have our precious time pulled in dozens of ways. The fact that you are willing to step forward and offer your time speaks well of each of you and, in a broader sense, the size of the response to this call for volunteers speaks well of the profession.  

BCE Awards Judging Panel (current as of 5/5/2014)
Entomology and pest management are helping professions. From conversations I've had with many of you over the years, I know that a lot of PMPs and entomologists got into this business out of a desire to help others. Volunteering to serve on a panel or a committee is an extension of that "helping mentality".

If you volunteered and were not selected to serve at this time, take heart. We have updated your record in our database that you have an interest in serving the certification programs. The next time we have an opening for something, we'll go to that list first before doing a broad-call to everyone else.

Some other possibilities of service include:

  • Serve on a different judging panel. The contact is Cindy Myers here at ESA HQ. Here is a list of all the awards that ESA, the Entomological Foundation, and the ESA Certification Corporation offer. Each has a judging panel and Cindy could let you know of any openings. Side note:  All other judging panels are only for ESA members.
  • Helping to build study materials for the ACE exam
  • Helping to develop standards and review the BCE exams (we'll need people to work on each of the six BCE Specialties and the General Qualifying Core BCE Exam).
  • Volunteering to sit on an ACE subcommittee, such as the exploratory committees to start ACE certifications in Public Health, Lawn and Ornamental, and perhaps other specialties.
  • Volunteering to sit on one of the other Certification committees, such as the Audit committee, Education committee, or others.
  • Serving as a volunteer proctor for a BCE or ACE applicant
  • Consider running for a seat on the Certification Board during the next election. We are in the process of modifying the ESACC Bylaws to allow for an open seat for an ACE to serve as well.