Wednesday, August 27, 2014

New BCEs and ACEs

You can always tell when pest prevention season is fully underway. Summer is always the slowest time for new ACEs and BCEs. Nevertheless, we did have four intrepid individuals take and pass their certification exams in the past month. Please join me in congratulating our newest ACEs and BCE.

Mr. David Sindani Wangila, BCE-Intern, (University of Nebraska- Lincoln), Lincoln, NE  USA.  Certified on 8/13/2014.

Mr. Kenneth Michael Richard, ACE, (Adam's Pest Control, Inc.), Hamel, MN  USA.  Certified on 8/18/2014.
Mr. Tony Garcia, ACE, (Clark Pest Control), Lodi, CA  USA.  Certified on 7/31/2014.
Mr. Douglas E. Stavig, ACE, (Orkin Inc.), Killeen, TX  USA.  Certified on 7/18/2014.

They join the record number of professionals who have pursued their certification in entomology. If you have not yet signed up, what's holding you back?

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

What to study for ACE International?

We're just 56 days away from PestWorld 2014 and the launch of the new ACE-International program.  ACE certification has been rapidly becoming the new benchmark of professionalism in the pest management industry for the past 10 years with an average annual growth of over 35%.  But until now it has been for US-based PMPs only.

Starting on October 21, 2014, ESA will begin to accept international ACE applications. The application is online now but all applications received prior to the October 21st launch will be held in abeyance until that time.

For ACE-I, the exam will be broken down into two different sub-exams. The primary one will be slightly shorter than the current ACE exam and will cover most of the same information. The primary ACE-I exam will be about 140 questions and the second exam will be approximately 30 questions. As with the US-based ACE, there is a content outline for each exam so that all applicants know what they are to study.

The primary exam has the same four main knowledge domains as the US ACE:

  • Inspection and Identification (45% of exam)
  • Selection and Implementation of Control Methods (28% of exam)
  • Evaluation (15% of exam)
  • Monitoring (12% of exam)

Under each of these topics there are a host of skills and knowledge areas upon which the exam content will be based. The primary difference between the US-based ACE and ACE-I is that all US regulations are removed from the exam. Click here to access the ACE-International Content Outline for the primary exam.

The second exam focuses solely on pesticide safety. The questions will all draw from these domains:

  • Understanding pesticides and control methods (20% of exam)
  • Using pesticides and other control methods (40% of exam)
  • Pesticide safety and exposure (40% of exam)
Again, under each of these topics are detailed knowledge areas that must be mastered in order to pass the exam. Click here to access the ACE-International Content Outline for the Pesticide Safety exam.

Wednesday, August 6, 2014

CEUs for ACEs

We've been getting a few emails and phone calls from ACEs wondering what they need to do in order to renew their certification at the end of the year.  There is apparently some confusion about the new CEU requirement.

The good news is that this is all pretty simple and for most people should not be too hard to handle.

Let's start with explaining the rules:
(These rules are for those who hold the US-based ACE and will not apply to those who attain the new ACE-International certification)
1) All ACEs must submit the following with their ACE renewal:
- Renewal form
- Sign the ACE Code of Ethics
- Proof of continued licensure (must be licensed to apply pesticides in at least one state)
- Proof of continuing education during the prior three years
- Fees
2) Starting in 2015 all ACE renewals will be for a three-year period.

What is a CEU?
CEU means continuing education units. It is a way to refer to professional development and training in a standardized way. ESA (and many other organizations) assign CEUs to various activities. The current rules are that you need to attain 18 CEUs from the prior three years (an average of 6 per year). ESA does not require pre-approval of educational units. ACEs should merely list them on their renewal forms.

You'll see that ESA is pretty liberal in what we count as a valid CEU. We believe that training and education can come from a lot of different sources, not just a traditional classroom setting. In most cases one hour of the activity equals one CEU.  ESA counts the following as valid CEUs.

(Note: This list is current as of August 6, 2014. Click back to entocert.org/ACE under "Maintain my certification" for a current chart of eligible CEUs).

  • Training Attended (e.g., state-led training, internal company, Purdue, PestWorld, Kentucky, etc). Most ACEs will get most of their CEUs from this category. You can claim a maximum of 7 training CEUs per year.
  • Training Taught. If you are a trainer in your company (or elsewhere) you can get credit for this. Other examples would be leading an educational session at a state pesticide association training event. You can claim a maximum of 7 training CEUs per year.
  • Job-related Community Service is open for CEUs. If you donate your time and services to keeping pests out of your local homeless shelter, you can claim that, as an example. You can claim a maximum of 2 community service CEUs annually.
  • Reading (trade publications, professional resource materials, etc) is an easy way to get some CEUs. We should all be keeping up with the trade presses and we give you credit for doing so -- up to a maximum of 2 CEUs per year.
  • Articles authored is another option. If you submit an article to a trade publication (other options could be authoring a pest control column in your local newspaper) and they publish it, this earns you CEUs. You can claim up to 6 CEUs per year for this topic.
  • College courses taken (online acceptable) is a great way to go. They must be entomologically-based is the only catch. But you can claim up to 7 CEUs per year.
  • Job-related examinations taken counts too. In fact, taking your ACE exam counts as CEUs -- whether or not you passed. If you took the ACE exam and failed and then took it again the next year and passed, you could claim 3 CEUs for both years.
  • Career-related committee service helps both ESA and you. If you serve on an ACE or BCE committee for ESA or perhaps on a committee for your local or state-based pest management association, you can claim up to 4 CEUs per year for this service.
  • Pest control blogs or social media written can earn you two CEUs per year. A good example of this would be if you maintain your company's twitter feed and spend an hour or so a month looking for interesting articles to tweet out to your clients.  You get to claim up to 2 CEUs a year for this.
  • Honors and awards (promotions, awards) is open for CEUs too. An example would be if you won the ACE of the Year Award, the PCT Crown Leadership Award, or perhaps even something more local, like from your state-based association. You can claim up to 2 CEUs per year for this activity.
  • Development of new programs (apps, community, etc) is a seldom-used CEU-earning option. If you have worked to create something new that benefits your pest management community you can claim up to 5 CEUs per year.
  • Webinars count too ... both teaching and attending them. Just because you don't have a travel budget to go to meetings doesn't mean that you don't have to stay current. Attend a webinar on pest management education and claim up to 7 CEUs per year.
  • And finally, there are some special activities that may count for CEUs. If you have done something during the past two years tha tis related ot your career development as a pest management expert but is not listed on this chart, just let us know and we'll see if we can award some CEUs.  

What kinds of documentation do I need to submit?
The renewal form simply asks for a summary detailing of your education credits. But you'll want to maintain deeper records in case your renewal is one that is selected for an audit (we randomly select a set percentage every year to ensure overall compliance).  Examples of the kinds of documentation you'll want to keep in your files is listed below for each CEU activity.
  • Training Attended -- Submit names of courses, dates, and locations. Keep receipts, program books, certificates, and/or name badges as validation for your files.
  • Training Taught. Submit names of courses, dates, and locations. Keep program books, speaker bios, and conference organizer letters as validation for your files.
  • Job-related Community Service -- Submit description and dates. Keep news clippings and letters from the organization which benefited from your service as validation for your files.
  • Reading -- Submit publication names, dates, and article names. Keep back issues as validation for your files.
  • Articles authored  -- Submit description and dates. Keep back issues as validation for your files.
  • College courses taken -- Submit course name, institution name, and dates. Keep transcripts, class notes, and/or professor's letters for your files.
  • Job-related examinations taken -- Submit examination name, organization name, and date of the exam. Keep the same for your files.
  • Career-related committee service -- Submit organization and committee name, including dates of service. Maintain meeting minutes or notes and communication with the Chair or other committee members for validation of your service.
  • Pest control blogs or social media -- Submit name of the blog or media type. Maintain clips for validation of your activity.
  • Honors and awards (promotions, awards) -- Submit the name of the hosting organization, the name of the award, and the date of the award. Maintain the same for your files.
  • Development of new programs (apps, community, etc) -- Submit the name and release date of your new program. Maintain backup information in your files as validation.
  • Webinars --  Submit names of courses, dates, and host organizations. Keep receipts, certificates, and/or communiction from the host organization as validation for your files.
ESA expects that most ACEs won't have any trouble earning their CEUs as we allow far more CEU types than most states do. New ACEs will need to submit their CEUs when their first renewal comes due as well so may need to look back in their files and calendars to document activities from the prior few years.

If you have any questions about CEUs, please contact ace [at] entocert [dot] org.

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Data Digging the PCT Top 100 List

I'm a big fan of PCT -- I imagine most followers of the pest control industry are too. But by far my favorite issue of the year is the PCT Top 100 list. This list is a great way for people interested in data (like me) to quantify what is happening in the industry. This year I asked Katherine Matthews, ESA's database manager, to review the list and compare it to our list of ACEs.  She found some interesting things that I thought I wanted to share with our list of certified professionals.

First, some simple facts:
  • We don't have a company of record for all of our ACEs (we don't require that in our database), so while most of our ACEs do in fact work for a professional organization, not all of them have shared with us what firm that is. All of the statistics below bear this fact in mind.
  • The ACE totals we used are current as of June 30, 2014, which means a total of 772 ACEs.
  • For those that we do have a company listed, just over 42% work for one of the top 100 firms.
  • 59% of our ACEs are in primarily "residential work firms", 40% work for companies that do more commercial work, and about 1% are in companies that have an even split between residential and commercial.
  • 90% of our ACEs work for companies where general pest control is the focus and the remaining 10% do primarily termite work.
Year Started By Firm:
When we look at the year our current ACEs, listed by employer we can see when the top 10 firms really started to adopt ACE as a business tool. Rollins hit a high point in 2012 when 25 of their people joined the ranks of our current ACEs. Recently Clark Pest Control has begun to put more people through the program with 13 of our current ACEs joining in 2013. Wil-Kil and American Pest Control are tied for third-most ACEs in a year with 11 each in 2009 and 2013 respectively.

Total Counts By Firm:
Rollins/Orkin (PCT #1) far and away has the most number of current ACEs with 69. Terminix (PCT #2) is in second with 26 (for the purposes of this analysis we joined Terminix International and Terminix Service together, as we don't differentiate between the two in our database). Clark Pest Control (PCT #10) is in third for number of total ACEs on staff (recall that they didn't start to get serious about the ACE program until 2013!). Ecolab (PCT #4) is next with 19 ACEs. Click on the chart to the right to see the rest of the numbers. Western Exterminator Company of course was acquired by Rentokil North America in October 2012, so our Western folks are listed under Rentokil.

Best Months to Test?
These next facts don't really correlate to the PCT list, but since we were doing data analysis anyhow, it just seemed like a good idea to dig a little deeper. When we reviewed the list of our current ACEs and the month in which they passed their exams, we can see that March and November seem to be the months when most people pass their tests. But if you want to maximize your score, then November and February seem to be your best bet. What that says to me is that it may be prudent to schedule your ACE for a less-busy time of year (if such a thing exists!).

Which States Lead The Pack?
In April of last year on this blog we looked at the number of ACEs by state. At that time Florida was #1 and Texas was #2. As you can see by the chart at the right, little has changed. But a few of the states that were previously "ACE-less" now have them. Of the 50 states the only ones that don't have any ACEs are Alaska, Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

Rental Property Opportunities
Pests in rental properties, whether low income or not, is a hot topic in the news. Due to high turnover and other factors, rental properties often create a good marketing opportunity for PMPs. Perhaps that is why we see that our ACEs are often more prevalent in states with high numbers of rental properties. A number of states that have high numbers of renters do not yet have high numbers of ACEs (Illinois, Ohio, and New York in particular). That will change in the coming months, I'm sure.

What kinds of research would you like to see regarding certification. Email us and let us know.

Friday, July 11, 2014

New ACEs and BCEs through July 10, 2014

Please join us in congratulating these newly certified professionals:

Mr. James A. Stephens, BCE, (Cook's Pest Control), Lawrenceville, GA  USA.  Certified on 7/2/2014.

Mr. Adam D. Grendon, ACE, (Sprague Pest Solutions), Tacoma, WA  USA.  Certified on 7/7/2014.
Mr. Charles P Trimble, ACE, (Sprague Pest Solutions), Tacoma, WA  USA.  Certified on 7/7/2014.
Mr. Edward Scott Belliston, ACE, (Sprague Pest Solutions), Tacoma, WA  USA.  Certified on 7/7/2014.
Mr. John C. Nichols, ACE, (Skyline Pest Solutions Inc.), McDonough, GA  USA.  Certified on 6/20/2014.
Mr. Brian Lee Fernander, ACE, (SWAT Services), Marietta, GA  USA.  Certified on 6/20/2014.
Mr. Blake C. Landry, ACE, (Terminix), Lafayette, LA  USA.  Certified on 6/17/2014.
Mr. Matthew Curtis Reyelts, ACE, (Bug Warrior), Yuma, AZ  USA.  Certified on 6/13/2014.
Mr. Ernest Schicchi, ACE, (Alternative Pest Control Inc.), Brooklyn, NY  USA.  Certified on 6/10/2014.
Mr. Fred Padilla, Jr, ACE, (Steritech), Orange, CA  USA.  Certified on 6/5/2014.
Mr. Ben Harl, ACE, (Cardinal Professional Products), Decatur, IL  USA.  Certified on 6/4/2014.
Mr. Calvin Mack Kennon, Jr., ACE, (Specialty Exterminating Co.), Madison Heights, VA  USA.  Certified on 6/4/2014.
Mr. Billy Justin Olesen, ACE, (Mathis Exterminating), Bremerton, WA  USA.  Certified on 5/28/2014.
Mr. Kenneth B. Merkl, ACE, (Rose Pest Solutions), Blue Ash, OH  USA.  Certified on 5/20/2014.
Mr. Earl M. MacLean, ACE, (Baxter Pest Professionals), Muncie, IN  USA.  Certified on 5/19/2014.
Mr. Douglas Whited, ACE, (Perschel & Meyer Pest Management), Jacksonville Beach, FL  USA.  Certified on 5/8/2014.

Wednesday, June 4, 2014

Certification Corporation Bylaws Updated

Bylaws are the guiding rules by which an organization operates. They define the how, what, and why of operations. As such, they should be well-thought out from the very beginning and adjusted only when necessary.

This is one of those times.

The ESA Certification Corporation arose out of the ESA and many of the Bylaws were adapted from current ESA rules and practices. As (a) the ACE program has continued to grow and thrive, and (b) additional stability was required for proper board management, it became apparent that a Bylaws adjustment was necessary in order to allow proper representation on the Certification Board.

Effective immediately, the following changes to the composition and structure of the Certification Board have taken place via an update to the ESA Certification Corporation Bylaws (See Article VII, Section 2):

  • An ACE Representative position has been created,
  • Terms of office are moving from one year to three years (see note below),
  • New rules are in place for appointment of candidates if none arise through the normal elections process, and
  • The two Ad Hoc positions have been clarified.

The 2015 officers of the Society are going to be elected in just a few weeks. Any candidates for the open seats should step forward soon and apply by COB on June 13th. Please visit the ESA Elections and Nominations page to nominate yourself or someone else for a seat on the Certification Board.

Staggered terms off office:
The positions on the board will be staggered so that approximately one third of all candidates rotate off each year. In order to achieve this, ESA is going to stagger the implementation of the three year terms.  For the 2015 positions (that would be elected in the summer of 2014), the Southeastern and North Central Branch representative positions will be elected to three year terms. The ACE position will be selected by a vote of all ACEs. All other positions are still for one year terms. The following year the Eastern and Southwestern Branches will elect to three year terms. The Governing Board will also appoint one of the Ad Hoc positions to a three year term. And then, completing the implementation, the 2017 officers will be selected for three-year terms in the summer of 2016. These would be the appointment of the second Ad Hoc position and the election of the International and Pacific Branch representatives.

ACE position:
The ACE representative does not need to be an ESA member to compete for the position. During the election all current ACEs will have the opportunity to vote for their representative.

Friday, May 30, 2014

Certified Science May 2014

Certifiedsciencelogo.jpg

A Periodic ESA E-mail Service to ACEs and Urban-Industrial BCEs

The Entomological Society of America is the #1 source of scientific information for the entomologically-focused urban professional. This email is a service of the ESA for all ACEs and any BCEs who hold a specialty in urban and industrial entomology.

Here is a summary of some recent articles in the ESA journals that relate to structural pest management and urban arthropod pests. The abstracts are freely available online for all articles, though access to the full text will generally require membership in the ESA, in addition to your certification.



Tunneling and Food Transportation Activity of Four Subterranean Termite Species (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) at Various Temperatures
Authors: Cao, Runxin; Su, Nan-Yao
Source: Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 107, Number 3, May 2014, pp. 696-701(6)
Abstract:  The effect of temperature on tunneling and food transportation activity of four subterranean termite species, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks), and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar), was examined. The experiment was conducted at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C and ? 99% relative humidity (RH) using 10- by 10-cm planar arenas. Tunneling areas excavated by termites at 12 and 48 h were analyzed using ... ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Within-Field Spatial Distribution of Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)-Induced Boll Injury in Commercial Cotton Fields of the Southeastern United States
Authors: Pulakkatu-Thodi, Ishakh; Reisig, Dominic D.; Greene, Jeremy K.; Reay-Jones, Francis P. F.; Toews, Michael D.
Source: Environmental Entomology, Volume 43, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 744-752(9)
Abstract:  Spatial distribution of boll injury caused by stink bugs to developing cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) bolls was studied in five commercial fields (?22 ha each) in 2011 and 2012 to understand variability in boll injury dynamics within fields. Cotton bolls and stink bugs were sampled weekly from a georeferenced grid of sampling points (one sample per 0.40 ha) in each field, but no samples were taken within 30 m of field edges. The inverse distance weighted interpolation, variogram analysis, and ... ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Bioactivity of Cedarwood Oil and Cedrol Against Arthropod Pests
Authors: Eller, F. J.; Vander Meer, R. K.; Behle, R. W.; Flor-Weiler, L. B.; Palmquist, Debra E.
Source: Environmental Entomology, Volume 43, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 762-766(5)
Abstract:  Heartwood samples from Juniperus virginiana L. were extracted with liquid carbon dioxide, and the bioactivity of carbon dioxide-derived cedarwood oil (CWO) toward several species of ants and cedrol toward ticks was determined. Repellency was tested for ants, and toxicity was tested for ticks. Ants in an outdoor bioassay were significantly repelled by the presence of CWO on a pole leading to a sugar-water solution. Similarly, CWO was a significant repellent barrier to red imported fire ants and prevented them from finding a typical food source. ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Durability of a Novel Durable Bait for Control of Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae): Results of Five-Year Field Aging Studies
Authors: Eger, J. E.; Hamm, R. L.; Demark, J. J.; Chin-Heady, E.; Tolley, M. P.; Benson, E. P.; Zungoli, P. A.; Smith, M. S.; Spomer, N. A.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1201-1205(5)
Abstract:  A durable termite bait containing 0.5% noviflumuron was evaluated for physical durability, retention of active ingredient, consumption by termites, and toxicity to termites over 5 yr in field studies at locations in Indiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina. Plots in Indiana and Mississippi included both natural rainfall and irrigated plots, while plots in South Carolina received only natural rainfall. Samples collected every 3 mo for the first 4 yr were evaluated for consumption with ... ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Effect of Feeding Status on Mortality Response of Adult Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to Some Insecticide Products
Authors: Choe, Dong-Hwan; Campbell, Kathleen
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1206-1215(10)
Abstract:  Fresh and aged residual deposits of several insecticide products were tested against bed bug adults to determine if a recent bloodmeal affected their mortality response to the residues. The bed bugs with a recent bloodmeal survived significantly longer compared with the unfed ones on their exposure to fresh or aged residual deposits of chlorfenapyr and aged residual deposits of deltamethrin on a wooden substrate. Even though the survival time of fed bed bugs was significantly longer ... ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Influences of Pyriproxyfen on Fecundity and Reproduction of the Pharaoh Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
Authors: Tay, Jia-Wei; Lee, Chow-Yang
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1216-1223(8)
Abstract:  The effects of the juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen (at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, and 1%) on egg production, number of ovarioles, and length of oocytes were examined in queens of the Pharaoh ant Monomorium pharaonis (L.). Pyriproxyfen significantly reduced egg production in queens from week 3 onwards. Queens that were exposed to 1% pyriproxyfen stopped producing eggs at week 8. After 8 wk, ovaries were dissected from all queens, and the number of ovarioles and the length of the largest oocytes ... ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Trehalase Activity in Fungus-Growing Termite, Odontotermes feae (Isoptera: Termitideae) and Inhibitory Effect of Validamycin
Authors: Tatun, Nujira; Wangsantitham, Orathai; Tungjitwitayakul, Jatuporn; Sakurai, Sho
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1224-1232(9)
Abstract:  Trehalase is the hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzed the hydrolysis of trehalose to glucose. In this study, trehalase activity in the fungus-growing termite, Odontotermes feae Wasmann had been examined. Trehalase activity in digestive tract and carcass of O. feae was higher than that in wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes gestroi Wasmann. The intestinal tract of worker caste of O. feae was the main source of trehalase compared with that in salivary, fat body, and carcass. In particular, the highest activity was found in ... ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Efficacy of Aerosol Applications of Methoprene and Synergized Pyrethrin Against Tribolium castaneum Adults and Eggs
Authors: Tucker, Angela M.; Campbell, James F.; Arthur, Frank H.; Zhu, Kun Yan
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 107, Number 3, June 2014, pp. 1284-1291(8)
Abstract:  Experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of a single aerosol application of the insecticides methoprene and piperonyl butoxide-synergized pyrethrin, alone or in combination, and the insecticide carrier, Isopar M, against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle. The initial test exposed adults to insecticide treatments and placed male/female pairs in flour. All adults exposed to synergized pyrethrin were knocked down for at least 24 h after exposure but they recovered. ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Going the Distance: How Does Market Access Affect Demand for IPM Packages?
Authors: Buckmaster, Amy; Alwang, Jeffrey; Peterson, Everett; Rivera, Mauricio
Source: Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Volume 5, Number 1, 2014, pp. B1-B7(7)
Abstract:  A challenge facing integrated pest management (IPM) technology transfer programs is to identify where to conduct outreach. As IPM is a knowledge-intensive management process, effective training usually requires sustained interactions between extension professionals and target farmers. Efforts to disseminate IPM are constrained by limited extension budgets and therefore should focus on areas with the greatest promise for ... ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
Susceptibility of Cat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) to Fipronil and Imidacloprid Using Adult and Larval Bioassays
Authors: Rust, M. K.; Vetter, R.; Denholm, I.; Blagburn, B.; Williamson, M. S.; Kopp, S.; Coleman, G.; Hostetler, J.; Davis, W.; Mencke, N.; Rees, R.; Foit, S.; Tetzner, K.
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 51, Number 3, May 2014, pp. 638-643(6)
Abstract:  The monitoring of the susceptibility of fleas to insecticides has typically been conducted by exposing adults on treated surfaces. Other methods such as topical applications of insecticides to adults and larval bioassays on treated rearing media have been developed. Unfortunately, baseline responses of susceptible strains of cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Bouchè), except for imidacloprid, have not been determined for all on-animal therapies and new classes of ... ( Click here for full abstract)
 

 
The Effects of Temperature and Innate Immunity on Transmission of Campylobacter jejuni (Campylobacterales: Campylobacteraceae) Between Life Stages of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)
Authors: Bahrndorff, S.; Gill, C.; Lowenberger, C.; Skovgård, H.; Hald, B.
Source: Journal of Medical Entomology, Volume 51, Number 3, May 2014, pp. 670-677(8)
Abstract:  The house fly ( Musca domestica L.) is a well-established vector of human pathogens, including Campylobacter spp., which can cause infection of broiler chicken flocks, and through contaminated broiler meat can cause outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in humans. We investigated whether Campylobacter jejuni (Jones) could be transferred between life stages of M. domestica (larvae-pupae-adults) and determined bacterial counts of C. jejuni at different time points after bacterial exposure.  ... ( Click here for full abstract


In addition to the scientific research, ESA also hosts the Entomology Today blog. Some recent posts of interest include: